What is gastroenterology?
Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver.1
- What is a Gastroenterologist? - American College of Gastroenterology [Internet]. American College of Gastroenterology. 2022 [cited 20 April 2022]. Available from: https://gi.org/patients/gi-health-and-disease/what-is-a-gastroenterologist/
Prevalence in India
Burden of Gastroenterological Diseases in India in 2016:1There has been increase in the prevalence and mortality rate:
- Liver cancer
- Paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction
- Gallbladder and biliary tract cancer
- Vascular intestinal disorders
- Colorectal cancer
- Inflammatory bowel disease
Mortality in India Due to Gastroenterological Disorders in 2016:1
Prevalence of Liver diseases In India: Tenth most common cause of Death 2,3,4
One in Five Affected from Liver Diseases
1 million Liver Cirrhosis Cases Diagnosed every year
9% to 53% General Population have NAFLD
40 million HBV cases detected
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Diseases in India 5,6,7,8
7.6% - 30% Suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
22% Suffer from constipation
1.4 Million Suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
25% Pregnant Females Suffer from Constipation
114-200/Million Suffer from Pancreatitis
- Liver diseases-an overview - researchgate [Internet]. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Siva-Krishnan-6/publication/331816198_LIVER_DISEASES-AN_OVERVIEW/links/5ca086daa6fdccd46045e7f4/LIVER-DISEASES-AN-OVERVIEW.pdf
- Liver diseases-an overview - research gate [Internet]. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Siva-Krishnan-6/publication/331816198_LIVER_DISEASES-AN_OVERVIEW/links/5ca086daa6fdccd46045e7f4/LIVER-DISEASES-AN-OVERVIEW.pdf
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Indian perspective - de ... [Internet]. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cld.1141
- Viral hepatitis- the silent disease facts and treatment ... [Internet]. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://ncdc.gov.in/linkimages/guideline_hep20158117187417.pdf
- Bhatia SJ, Makharia GK, Abraham P, Bhat N, Kumar A, Reddy DN, et al. Indian consensus on gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults: A position statement of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2019;38(5):411–40.
- 22% of Indian adults suffer from constipation : Abbott 'Gut Health Survey' [Internet]. Press Release | Abbott India. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://www.abbott.in/media-center/press-releases/indian-adults-suffer-from-constipation.html#:~:text=The%20findings%20suggest%20that%2022,constipation%20associated%20with%20certain%20comorbidities
- Kedia S, Ahuja V. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in India: The great shift east. Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases. 2017;2(2):102–15.
- (PDF) prevention of pancreatic cancer - researchgate.net [Internet]. [cited 2022Apr20]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336305874_Prevention_of_Pancreatic_Cancer
Classification of Liver Disorders: 1
Alcoholic Liver Disease
- It includes alcoholic fatty liver with or without hepatitis, alcohol hepatitis (reversible because of acute ingestion) to cirrhosis (irreversible).
- Patients with severe alcohol use disorder mostly develop chronic liver disease; this is the most frequent cause of CLD.
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD/NASH)
- NAFLD has an association with metabolic syndrome (obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus).
- Some of these patients develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which leads to fibrosis of the liver.
Chronic Viral Hepatitis:
- Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D infections are the most common causes of chronic liver disease.
- Chronic hepatitis C, if not treated, may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cirrhosis is a final stage of chronic liver disease that results in disruption of liver architecture, the formation of widespread nodules, vascular reorganization, neo-angiogenesis, and deposition of an extracellular matrix.1
The main causes of chronic viral hepatitis are.2
Genetic Causes: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson disease
Autoimmune Causes: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) or Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)
Other Causes of Chronic Liver Disease: Drugs or Vascular. Budd-Chiari syndrome
The most common gastric problems are:
Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining is called gastritis3
Peptic Ulcer: a sore on the lining of your stomach or duodenum4
Irritable bowel Syndrome: The presence of abdominal pain or discomfort with altered bowel habits in the absence of detectable structural and biochemical abnormalities5
Chronic Diarrhoea: Loose stools that last for at least four weeks.6
Constipation: a disorder in the gastrointestinal tract, which can result in the infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness. Acute constipation may cause closure of the intestine, which may even require surgery 7
- Sharma A, Nagalli S. Chronic Liver Disease. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554597/
- Azer SA, Akhondi H. Gastritis. StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544250/
- Gastritis and gastropathy. Definition & Facts for Gastritis & Gastropathy. NIDDK. 2019. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gastritis-gastropathy/definition-facts
- Peptic Ulcer. Symptoms & Causes of Peptic Ulcers (Stomach Ulcers). NIDDK. 2014. Available from: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/peptic-ulcers-stomach-ulcers/symptoms-causes
- Saha L. Irritable bowel syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and evidence-based medicine. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(22):6759-6773. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.6759
- Chronic diarrohoea in adults (beyond the basics). UpToDate. 2022. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-diarrhea-in-adults-beyond-the-basics#:~:text=Chronic%20diarrhea%20is%20defined%20as,possible%20causes%20of%20chronic%20diarrhea
- Forootan M, Bagheri N, Darvishi M. Chronic constipation: A review of literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(20):e10631. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000010631
Ventri Division Introduction
Viatris Gastrointestinal business aims at bringing a transformation in this therapeutic area by providing quality medicines at affordable price
The Viatris, Ventri division strives to empower individuals and provide a healthy life. It has a wide range of gastrointestinal & liver health well-being product in addition to few essential antibiotics
- Ursobiac® (Ursodeoxycholic acid 300mg )
- Prugonist® (Prucalopride 1mg & 2mg tablets)
- Eticholic® (Obeticholic acid 10mg)
- Myprazol® Tab/ Inj (Pantoprazol 40mg IV)
- Myprazol® D (Pantoprazol 40mg + Domperidone 10mg)
- Myprazol® L (Pantoprazol 40mg + Levosulpiride 75mg)
- MyFocoly® (Multiviatmin- Alpha Lipoic Acid 100mg, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride 3mg, Methylcobalamin 1500mcg, Folic Acid 1.5mg)
- MyTecit F TM (Montelukast 10mg + Fexofenadine 120mg)
- MyTecit L TM (Montelukast 10mg + Levocetrizine 5mg)
- Penlactic® (Amoxycillin 500mg and Potassium Clavulanate 125mg)
- Viatris: Global Healthcare Company. Available at: https://www.viatris.com/en. Accessed on: 22 February 2022.